Scaffolding strategies are ways of organizing or shaping instruction to create a classroom environment where students can take risks safely, develop cognition, and become better able to handle tasks involving complex language.




Show or demonstrate what they are expected to do. Guide students through each step of a process. Have examples of previous student work for students to see. Provide clear guidelines and standards.


This calls for activating and building on the knowledge that students already have, going from the known to the unknown. Help students make connections of the new concepts or behavior to previous learning. Show how the new material is pertinent to their lives.


Create a parallel of the typically dry, incomprehensible text with pictures, graphic organizers, manipulatives, and real objects in order to make information comprehensible and available for mental processing. Devise metaphors and analogies based on the students' experiences.

Elements and sequence of a story plot



Concept map for thinking through what information is needed before beginning a research project on careers


Help the students construct a framework of concepts that show the relationships of the old and new learning and how they are connected. Thinking Maps or other advanced organizers showing the significant aspects of information can be discussed before a topic is presented. This presents the broad ideas within the broad picture. It connects multiple facets of isolated concepts to a universal principle or body of knowledge.




This involves thinking about how one learns. Language strategies are deliberately taught and practiced. Students keep learning logs and reflective journals. They evaluate their own learning.



Multiple causes of World War II


Student become engaged in applying and transforming knowledge in meaningful ways, such as illustrations, charts, diagrams, graphic organizers, dramatizations, creating songs, dancing, and re-writing stories. It involves representing information in another form. Students must review what they know and think about how to communicate their knowledge in a new format.