Genocides, Politicides, and Other Mass Murder Since 1945, With Stages in 2004

Those countries at Stage 7 are currently at the mass killing stage.  They have active genocides or politicides, and are identified with bold type. They are erupting.  The others are at various stages of dormancy (4 through 6,) but could erupt again.  Civilian deaths in 2001 are separately identified. The table is organized by region.  Within a region, countries are listed in order of their potential for mass killing, by stages. Not all politicides since 1945 appear on this chart because some countries where politicide has occurred have become democracies  (e.g. East Germany, Poland, Romania, Mongolia) and are not now at stage 4 or above.   2004 Gregory H. Stanton, Genocide Watch

 AFRICA

NATION

YEARS OF EPISODES SINCE 1945

CUMULATIVE  CIVILIAN DEATH TOLL

MAJOR

KILLERS

MAIN DIVISIONS

STAGE  in 2004

Sudan

1956 1972,

 

1983 present

2 million Nuer, Dinka, Christians, Nuba, southerners

50,000 in Darfur

Khartoum govt NIF government, militias, rebels

Janjaweed

Political, religious, racial, ethnic

7 Politicide, Genocide

Ethiopia

1945 1974

 

1974 1985

 

1994 2000

2001 - present

150,000 Oromo, Eritreans, Somali

750,000 Class enemies, Oromo

100,000 Eritrea war

Ethnic minorities

Anuak

Selassie monarchy

Derg communists

 

Army (Ethiopian Defence Forces)


Army (EDF)

National, religious, ethnic

7 Genocidal massacres

Burundi

1959 1962

1972

1988

1993 1995

 

1996 -- present

50,000 Hutus 150,000 Hutus 25,000 Hutus

50,000 Tutsis, 100,000 Hutus


 

100,000 Tutsi, Hutu

Tutsi government

Tutsi army

Tutsi army

Hutu rebels

Tutsi army

Rebels, Army

Ethnic, political

7 Genocidal massacres

Democratic Republic of the Congo

1945 -- 1960

1960 1965

1977 1979, 1984

1994 1997

1997 2003

1994 present

1,000s Africans

1,000s civil war

1,000s civil war

80,000 Hutus, Banyamulenge,

2 million (civil war) 

40,000 Hema,Lendu

Colonial forces

Rebels, army

Rebels, army

Kabila/ Rwandan army, Ugandan, Rwandan armies, rebels, DRCongo

& allied armies, Militias

Racial, colonial, economic

Political, ethnic

7 Politicide,

Genocidal massacres

Uganda

1972 1979,

 

1980 1986

 
1994 present

300,000 Acholi, Lango, Karamoja

250,000 Baganda,

Banyarwanda

1,000s LRA foes

Amin govt army, police

Obote govt army, police

Lords Resistance Army

Political, ethnic, religious

 

 

 

7 Massacres

Cte dIvoire

1998   2003

1000s Bambara, Senoufo, Bt, Burkinabe

Govt police, rebels

Ethnic, national,

Religious, political

6 Preparation

Zimbabwe

1982 84,

1998 present 

20,000 Matabele

 

Govt army 5th Brigade, militias

Ethnic, political

6 Preparation

Liberia

1990 2000

2001 -- 2003

100,000 Krahn, Gio, Mano, etc.

 

Doe govt army, Taylor rebels Govt,  rebels

Political, ethnic

6 Preparation

Equatorial Guinea

1975 1979

2001 - present

50,000 BubiNguema foes

Macias Nguema regime

Political, ethnic

6 Preparation

Nigeria

1966 1970,

1972 2000 (sporadic)

2001 --present

1 million Ibos

Tiv, Hausa, Yoruba Ogoni, others

 

Nigerian army

Ethnic mobs

Nigerian army, police

Political, ethnic, religious

5 Polarization

Rwanda

1959 1963, 1993
1994

1995 present

10,000s Tutsi

800,000 Tutsi

1,000s Hutus

 

Hutu govt

Hutu Power gov't

Interahamwe

Rwandan govt

Ethnic, political

5 Polarization

Somalia

1988 present

100,000 Somalis, Isaaq clan

Warlord/clan militias

Political, clan

6 Preparation

Sierra Leone

1991 2003

100,000 (civil war)

 

Revolutionary United Front, other militias

Political, ethnic

5 Polarization

Congo-Brazzaville

1959 1968 

1997 2000

5,000 Govt  foes

1,000s (civil war)

Govt army, police, rebels

Colonial

Political, ethnic

5 Polarization

Angola

1961 -- 1962

1975 2003

40,000 Kongo, 500,000 Umbundu, Ovimbundu

Colonial army

Govt, UNITA armies, allies

Colonial

Political, ethnic

5 Polarization

Central African Republic

1966 1979

2001

2,000 Bokassa foes

 

Govt army, police

Political, ethnic

5 -- Polarization

Botswana

1990 present

100s Kng Bushmen, Caprivi Namibians

Govt police

Economic, political, ethnic

4 Organization

Algeria

1954 1963

 

1991 -- present

160,000 OAS, Harkis, settlers


50,000 Berbers

French legions, OAS, rebels

Islamic Armed Group (GIA)

Colonial

 

Religious, political

6 Preparation

Eritrea

1960s - 2000

10,000s Eritreans (independence war with Ethiopia)

Ethiopian armies, police

National, religious, ethnic

4 Organization

Senegal Casamance

1990 2001

1,000 Diola (civil war)

Senegalese army, rebels

Political, ethnic

4 Organization

Kenya

1952 1960

 

1991 1993

1,500 Kikuyu,

colonials

1,000s Nilotics

Colonial forces

MauMau Kikuyu

Ethnic militias

Ethnic, political

4 Organization

Guinea Bissau

1960s present

1,000s

Army

Political

4 Organization

Chad

1965 1996

10,000s southern Saras, civil war

Govt army, Libyan army, rebels

Ethnic, racial, religious, political

4 Organization 

Morocco-Western Sahara

1976 present

1,000s: Sahrawis

Moroccan army,

Polisario rebels

Political, ethnic

4 Organization

Mali

1990 1993

1,000 Touaregs

Malian army, Touareg rebels

Ethnic, political

4 Organization 

Mozambique

1975 1994

1 million by MPLA, Renamo

Renamo, MPLA

Political, ethnic

4 Organization

Madagascar

1947 1948

50,000 Malagasy nationalists

French colonial forces

National, racial,  political, ethnic

4 -- Organization

South Africa

1987 1996
 

1996 present  

1,000s Zulus, Xhosa, ANC,

Boer farmers

Govt police, ethnic militias

Racial, political, ethnic

4 Organization

Egypt

sporadic

100s: Copts

Muslim funda-

mentalists

Religious, political

4 Organization

 

 AMERICAS

 

NATION

EPISODES

DEATH TOLL

KILLERS

DIVISIONS

STAGE in 2004

 

Colombia

1948 -- 1958

1975 present

150,000

10,000s

 

 

Political parties

Marxists, rightist death squads, drug cartels

Political

Political, narcotics cartels

7 Politicide

 

 

Brazil

1945 -- 1964

 

1964 present sporadic massacres

300,000 Vargas foes, Indians

1,000s: Kayapo, Yanomami, etc.

Govt police, settler militias

Settlers, miners

Political, economic, racial, ethnic

8 -- Denial

4 Organization

 

Guatemala

1950s 1980s

200,000 Mayans

Govt army, death squads

Racial, ethnic, political

8 -- Denial

4 Organization

 

Cuba

1945 -- 1959

1959 present

100s rebels

1000s counter revolutionaries

Rightist govts

Castro govt

Political

8 Denial

4 Organization

 

Peru

1980s 1990s

1000s peasants

1000s rebels

Shining Path

Govt forces

Political

4 -- Organization

 

Venezuela

1945 1970s

1,000s Yanomami

Settlers, miners

Racial, ethnic

5 Polarization

 

Nicaragua

1970 1979

1980 1989

1,000s Sandinistas

10,000s Contras

Govt army

Sandinista army

Political

4 Organization

 

El Salvador

1980 1992

10,000s leftists

Army, militias

Political

4 Organization

 

Paraguay

 

1945 1962

1962 1974 

1000s Indians  1000 Ach Indians

Army, settlers

Settlers

Racial, ethnic

4 Organization

 

Mexico

 

  Chiapas

1945 2001

10,000s Indians, govt foes

10,000s  Mayans

Army, police

Ethnic, political

8 -- Denial

4 Organization

 

Argentina

1976 1980

20,000 leftists

Army, police

Racial, ethnic

Political

8 Denial

 

Chil

1973 1976

10,000s leftists

Army, police

Political

8 Denial

 

ASIA

 

NATION

EPISODES

DEATH TOLL

KILLERS

DIVISIONS

STAGE  in 2004

 

North Korea

1949 present

2 million +

Government

Political, class, regional

7 Politicide

 

Burma (Myanmar)

1945 1948

1948 1962

1962 -- 1978

1979 -- present

1,000s rebels

15,000 rebels,govt

100,000  Shan, Karen, NDU

Burma Ind Move

U Nu govt,rebels

Burmese govt:

SLORC, SPDC

Ethnic, political, religious

7 Politicide,

genocidal massacres

 

India

 

      Gujarat

 

      Kashmir

1947 (partition)

1949 present

1992 present

 

1947 -- present

100,000s Hindus, Muslims, Sikhs

1,000s Muslims, 100s Hindus

1000s Muslims, Hindus

Hindu, Muslim, Sikh mobs

Hindu mobs, Muslim mobs

Rebels, police

National, religious, ethnic, political

 

National, religious

7 Politicide,

genocidal massacres

 

Civil war

 

Nepal

1996 present

5,000 anti-Maoists,

1,000s rebels

Maoist rebels

Nepal army

Political

7 Political 

massacres

 

Peoples  Republic of  China

1949 1977

 

1977 -- present

35 million  class enemies, religious

minorities, Uighurs Muslims, Christians

Falun Gong

Maoist communist govt, PRC army, Red Guards, police

Political,national, class,economic, ethnic, religious

7 Politicide

 

 

Pakistan

  East Pakistan:

  (now Bangladesh)

  West Pakistan

1947 (partition)

1971

 

1973 1977

1978 -- present

61,000 Hindus

1,500,000 Bengalis & Hindus

Sindhis

Shiites, Christians

Muslim mobs

West Pakistani

army

Army

Sunnis

Political, national, ethnic, religious

6 Preparation

 

Indonesia

 

 

 

 

1965

1966  present

 

 

 

500,000 communist

10,000s: Aceh

1,000s: Irian Jaya

1,000s: Moluccas

1,000s: Sulewesi

Suharto govt

Suharto govt

& successors

Laskar Jihad

Laskar Jihad

Political, ethnic

Religious, political

religious, ethnic, national

6 Preparation, genocidal massacres

 

                           

 

Philippines

1972 present

1,000s  pro-govt officials, separatists, communists

Marxists, govt

Army, Moros,

Abu Sayyef

Political, religious

6 -- Preparation (by terrorists)

 

Afghanistan

1978 1993

 

1993 1996

1996 2001

 

1996 2001

2001 present

700,000 (civil war)

50,000+

30,000 (civil war)

50,000+ Tajiks, Uzbeks, Hazara

10,000+

100s

Soviets

Mujahadin

Warlords

Taliban,

Al Queda

NorthernAlliance

Taliban

Political, national, religious, ethnic

6 Preparation

 

Sri Lanka

1983 present

1000s: Tamil  and Sinhalese civilians

Anti-Tamil mobs

Tamil Tigers

Ethnic, national, political,religious

6 Preparation

 

 

Uzbekistan Fergana Valley

1991 2002

1,000s

 

Muslim funda-

mentalists

Political, religious

6 Preparation

 

Tibet

1959 1990s

1,600,000 Tibetan Buddhists

PRC communist

Chinese govt

National, ethnic, political religious

5 Polarization

 

Azerbaijan

1988 1994

10,000s Armenians

1,000s Aseris

Azeri & Armenian armies

Ethnic, political, religious national

5 Polarization

 

Cambodia

1945 1966

1966 1975

1968 1975

1975 1979

 

 

 

 

1979 1993

1993 present

5,000 kings foes

15,000 Vietnamese 

360,000 pro-govt

1.7 2.2 million class enemies, Cham Muslims, city people, Vietnamese,

Eastern Zone

230,000 (civil war)

1,000s govt foes

Royal govt

Lon Nol govt

Khmer Rouge

Khmer Rouge

 

 

 

 

Samrin govt,KR

Hun Sen govt

Political, class, ethnic, religious, national

5 Polarization

 

French Vietnam

South Vietnam

North Vietnam

 

Peoples Democratic RepublicVietnam

1945 1953

1954 1975

1954 1975

 

1975 present

10,000s leftists

90,000 leftists

1 million class enemies,minorities

10,000s  boat people, reeducated

French colonials

South Viet govt

North Viet govt

 

Vietnamese govt

Political, class, ethnic, national

 

 

4 Organization

 

Laos

1945 1960

1960 1975

1975 -- present  

10,000s leftists 100,000 anti-

communists, Hmong

Royalists,French

Pathet Lao

Peoples Demo-

cratic  Republic

Political, ethnic

4 - Organization

 

East Timor

1965 2000

200,000 Timorese

Indonesian army,

militias

Political,national, ethnic, religious

(Refugees still at risk in Indonesia)

 

 EUROPE

 

NATION

EPISODES

DEATH TOLL

KILLERS

DIVISIONS

STAGE  in 2004

 

Russia Chechnya

 

1943 1957

1994 present

50,000 Chechens,

1,000s Russians

 

USSR army

Russian Army,

Chechen rebels

Ethnic, national, religious,political

7 Politicide, massacres

 

Yugoslavia: Kosovo

1998 2001

10,000 Albanian Kosovars,

100s  Serbs

Yugoslav Army

 

KosovoLibArmy

Ethnic, religious, national, political

5 Polarization

 

Yugoslavia

 Croatia    

 Serbia, Bosnia

(including 1941-1945 relevant to later conflicts)

 

1941 1945

1941 1945

 

1945 1987

1993 2001

650,000 Serbs

 

100,000 Croats, Muslims

1 million Tito foes

1,000s dissidents

Croatian Fascists

  (Ustashi)

Serb Partisans

   (Chetniks)

Tito govt

Milosevic govt

Political, ethnic, national,religious

8 Denial

5 Polarization

 

Macedonia

1999 - 2001

100s Albanians, Macedonians

Albanian rebels, Macedonia govt

Political, ethnic

5 Polarization

 

Bosnia

1992 1998

200,000 Muslims, Croats, Serbs

Bosnian Serbs,

Croats, Muslims

Ethnic, religious, national, political

5 Polarization

(partition)

 

Georgia:

Abkhasia

1993 present

100s Abkhasians

 

Georgian army, separatist rebels

National, ethnic, political

5 Polarization

 

Northern Ireland

1964 2001

3000 Catholics, Protestants

 

Irish Republic Army, Protestant extremists

Religious, class, political, national

5 Polarization

 

Croatia

1991 1995

50,000 Serbs, Bosnian Muslims

Croat army, militias

Ethnic, national, religious,political

4 - Organization

 

USSR (State no longer exists.)

 

 

 

USSR national  minorities, esp. in

Crimea, Dagestan

Ingushetia

1945 1953

 

1945 1947 

 

1954 1991

1945 1991

 

15 million class enemies

1 million repatriated

Soviet nationals

6 million dissidents

400,000 Karachai, Meshketians,Balkar

Crimean Tatars, Ingushi

Soviet police, army, NKVD

NKVD, KGB secret police

 

Red Army,

Secret police

Political, national, ethnic, religious

Not applicable (State no longer exists.)

 

 

 

 

 

 

MIDDLE EAST

 

NATION

EPISODES

DEATH TOLL

KILLERS

DIVISIONS

STAGE in 2004

 

Israel Palestine

1948 1955, 1956, 1967, 1973,

1987 -- 1993

 

2000 -- present

1,000s Israelis, 1,000s Palestinians

1,162 Palestinians

160 Israelis

1,000s Palestinians,

100s Israelis

Irgun, Arab terrorists, Israeli army, police, Fatah,

Israeli army

Hamas,

Islamic Jihad

National, religious, ethnic, political

7 Politicide,

massacres

 

Iraq

1961 2003

 

2003 present

190,000 Kurds, Shiites, Kuwaitis
 

Shiites, collaborators

Iraqi army, presidential guard, Baathists,

Fedayeen

Political, ethnic, national, religious

Religious, political

8 Denial

7 Genocide

Politicide, terrorism

 

Turkey

1984 2000

10,000s  Kurds

 

Turkish army

Ethnic, religious, national, political

8 Denial

6 Preparation

 

Syria

1981 1982

21,000 Kurds, Sunni Muslims

Syrian army, police

Political, religious,national

5 Polarization

 

Iran

1953 1978

1978 1992

 

26,000 Shah foes

60,000 Kurds, monarchists, Bahai

Secret police,

Iranian army, revolution guards

Religious, ethnic, political, national

5 Polarization

 

Cyprus

1963 1967

2,000 Turks, Greek Cypriots

Greek Cypriots

Turks

Political, religious, ethnic, national

5 Polarization (partition)

 

Lebanon

1974 1991

55,000 Christians, Muslims, Druze

Religious militias

Hezbollah, Phalangists

Religious, political

5 Polarization

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Source: Genocide Watch